Tag Archives: Robert Paxton


The term “national socialism” seems to have been invented by the French nationalist author Maurice Barrès, who described the aristocratic adventurer the Marquis de Morès in 1896 as “the first national socialist”. Morès, after failing as a cattle rancher in … Continue reading

Posted in Europe, France, History, Notebook, Uncategorized, World War 2 | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment


Considering these precursors, a debate has arisen about which country spawned the earliest fascist movement. France is a frequent candidate. Russia has been proposed. Hardly anyone puts Germany first. It may be that the earliest phenomenon that can be functionally … Continue reading

Posted in History, Notebook, Politics, Race, US politics | Tagged , , | Leave a comment